Case law is moving in the direction of recognizing that permanently incarcerating individuals who committed crimes as juveniles is indeed cruel and unusual punishment. The Supreme Court took that position last year in the case Graham v. Florida, in which APA and other organizations had filed an amicus brief. The majority decision echoed the brief, which argued that due to minors' lack of understanding, they should not have to sacrifice their freedom for the rest of their lives for behavior that can be influenced by their incomplete brain development. For more information, see Psychiatric News at http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/content/45/12/13.1.full. Additional information on brain development in youth can be found in the book Developmental Psychopathology and Wellness: Genetic and Environmental Influences, published by American Psychiatric Publishing and edited by James J. Hudziak, M.D. Ordering information is posted at http://appi.org/SearchCenter/Pages/SearchDetail.aspx?ItemId=62279.